Human ACE2 And TMPRSS2 Interaction With SARS-Cov-2 In COVID-19 Patient: A Review On Male Reproductive Disorders

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Eni Maria Sisca , Ria Margiana , Reni I’tishom


Since its inception in 2019 from China, the novel Coronavirus has caused an unprecedented havoc in the economic
and public health sector. Many countries were forced to close their borders and cross-border interactions in order
to limit the spread of the disease. Furthermore, many economic and commercial activities were adversely affected
as many businesses had to close. The only ones that the pandemic spared were the ones providing essential services.
By March 2020, many public healthcare facilities had already been overrun. Other governments devised alternative
means of managing significant cases of COVID-19, such as introducing home-based care to give room for more critical
cases to be taken care of in intensive care units. It is imperative to identify the disease's risk factors to mitigate the
unexpected devastation caused by the SARS-CoV-2. Global epidemiological results indicate that men, especially the
elderly, are more susceptible to Coronavirus infection. The number of reported Coronavirus cases varies by gender,
and this disparity continues to grow in favor of male participants until they reach the age of 60. Other studies have
also established that men more than women are susceptible to coronavirus infection. Further, male patients
diagnosed with coronavirus infection were shown to have an elevated mortality rate. SARS-CoV-2 is the Covid-19
pathogen that is transmitted via respiratory globules, through indirect or direct interaction. Evaluation of the
genome has revealed that SARS-CoV-2 is 79% similar to SARS-CoV-2; they employ ACE2 receptors to attack cells,
meanwhile it has been established that TMPRSS2 promotes ACE2, therefore causing more severe reactions in
comparison to the other types of coronaviruses. Studies describe ACE2 as a gateway for viruses to enter cells. It is
directly associated with the COVID-19 clinicalsymptoms. Research has shown that TMPRSS2 and ACE2 are expressed
in the male reproductive system tract and testis and are controlled by testosterone. Thus, the male reproductive
system has all the mechanism needed to bid SARs-CoV-2, and these possibilities raise the capability of ACE2 and
TMPRSS2 as potential vectors of COVID-19. This review examines how the novel Coronavirus find its way into the
human cells through known receptors such as ACE2, antibody Fcy R, etc. The examination is also done on the
mechanisms of its spike proteins transition with the help of proteases such as cathepsins, Furin, and TMPRSS2. The
study reviewed six articles selected based on PRISMA criteria.

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